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But two trends — a long-standing high intermarriage rate and a decade of declining Latin American immigration — are distancing some Americans with Hispanic ancestry from the life experiences of earlier generations, reducing the likelihood they call themselves Hispanic or Latino. Among the estimated The closer they are to their immigrant roots, the more likely Americans with Latin adults friends or anyone what happened to rich ancestry are to identify as Hispanic.
Similarly, second-generation adults with Hispanic ancestry the U. By the third generation — a group made up of the U. And by the fourth or higher generation U. This report explores the attitudes and experiences of two groups of adults. The first are those who are self-identified Hispanics. The second are those who have Hispanic ancestry but do not consider themselves Hispanic — i. Racial and ethnic identity on surveys and in the U. Any survey respondent who says they are Hispanic is counted as Hispanic, and those who say they are not Hispanic are not counted as such.
This practice has been in place on the census since for Hispanic identity and since for racial identity. These findings emerge from two Pew Research Center national surveys that explored attitudes and experiences about Hispanic identity among two populations. The first survey, conducted Oct. The second is a first-of-its-kind national survey of U. It was offered in English and Spanish from Nov. Together, these two surveys provide a look at the identity experiences and views of U. Immigration from Latin America played a central role in the U.
But by the s, U. And the Great Recession, 2 coupled with many other factors, ificantly slowed the flow of new immigrants into the country, especially from Mexico. As a result, the U. Hispanic population is still growing, but at a rate nearly half of what it was over a decade ago as fewer immigrants arrive in the U. Over the same period, the Latino intermarriage rate remained relatively high and changed little.
In In both andLatino intermarried rates were higher than those for blacks or whites. A similar pattern is present among those who are married, according to the two surveys. But that share declines across the generations. These trends may have implications for the shape of Hispanic identity today. With so many U. These trends also have implications for the future of Hispanic identity in the U. Lower immigration levels than in the past and continued high intermarriage rates may combine to produce a growing of U. And even among those who do self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, those in the second and third or higher generations may see their identity as more tied to the U.
As a result, even estimates of the of Americans who self-identify as Hispanic could be lower than currently projected.
But these projections assume that many current trends, including Hispanic self-identity trends, will continue. When it comes to describing themselves and what makes someone Hispanic, there is some consensus across self-identified Hispanics.
However, not all Hispanics agree, with views often linked to immigrant generation. The immigrant experience is an important part of the U. Hispanic experience. Roughly four-in-ten self-identified U. Census Bureau data. Some U. The terms that self-identified Hispanics use to describe themselves can provide a direct look at their views of identity and the link to their countries of birth or family origin.
Third or higher generation Latinos were born in the U. Another measure of identity is how much Hispanics feel a common identity with other Americans. Overall, U. But this finding masks large differences across the generations. Speaking Spanish is a characteristic often linked to Latino identity. This came up during a debate in the presidential campaignwhen Republican candidate U. And among U. Another characteristic that for some is seen as important to Hispanic identity is having a Spanish last name.
Racial and ethnic identity in the U. This is how race and ethnicity is measured in government surveysas well as in surveys by Pew Research Center and other research groups. As a result, there are some Americans who say they have Hispanic ancestry but do not consider themselves Hispanic. Or, looked at another way, among the This group also has distant immigrant roots. The reasons for this are many and are often linked to mixed backgrounds, limited contact with Hispanic relatives and few Hispanic cultural links, according to a follow-up open-ended question.
However, the of Hispanic cultural activities experienced by Americans with Hispanic ancestry declines across the generations, mirroring the finding that Hispanic self-identity also fades across generations. Second-generation self-identified Hispanics were about as likely to say this happened during their childhood.
However, the two surveys reveal that the childhood experiences with Spanish fade quickly across the generations, even though there is wide support for the language among Hispanics. About 40 million people in the U. But while the of Spanish speakers nationally is rising, among self-identified Hispanics the share who speak it at home is in decline. The two Pew Research Center surveys explored how respondents rated their own ability to speak and read Spanish and to speak and read English.
While a small share of U. Among second-generation self-identified Latinos — i. Meanwhile, English dominance rises across the generations. The language profile of self-identified non-Hispanics who have Hispanic ancestry is different. Despite a decline in Spanish use across generations, there is widespread support for its use in the future.
Among self-identified Hispanics, connections with ancestral national origins decline as immigrant roots become more distant. Connections to the home country decline even further among non-Hispanic adults with Hispanic ancestry. The contemporary experiences linked to the Hispanic background of self-identified Hispanics and non-Hispanics with Hispanic ancestry vary across generations in much the way their childhood and cultural experiences do. The two Pew Research Center surveys asked respondents whether their Hispanic heritage has made a difference in their life. How do adults with Hispanic ancestry think strangers walking past them on the street would describe their background?
The two surveys explored experiences with discrimination related to being Hispanic.
And just as with other measures, experiences with discrimination are less frequent among higher generations of adults with Hispanic ancestry. The composition of networks of friends varies widely across immigrant generations.
Yet, Hispanics are often living in neighborhoods that are largely Hispanic, especially in the South and in the West. The two surveys asked self-identified Hispanics and self-identified non-Hispanics with Hispanic ancestry about their neighborhoods. Among self-identified Latinos, the foreign born and the second generation are most likely to say that all or most of their neighbors share their heritage. Self-identified Hispanics are U. Self-identified non-Hispanics are U. Americans of Hispanic ancestry are those who either self-identify as Hispanic or Latino or say they have Hispanic ancestors but do not self-identify as Hispanic.
Foreign born refers to persons born outside of the United States to parents neither of whom was a U. For the purposes of this report, foreign born also refers to those born in Puerto Rico. Although individuals born in Puerto Rico are U. First generation refers to foreign-born people. Second generation refers to people born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia, with at least one first-generation, or immigrant, parent. Third generation refers to people born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia, with both parents born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia and with at least one immigrant grandparent.
Third and higher generation refers to people born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia, with both parents born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia.Latin adults friends or anyone what happened to rich
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When Labels Don’t Fit: Hispanics and Their Views of Identity