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Qiaolei Jiang, Ran Tao, in Principles of Addiction The absence of physical bodies promotes the perception of cybersex as a safe alternative to real-life Sexual encounters encounters. Cybersex can satisfy sexual desires without the risk of sexually transmitted disease or pregnancy. Cybersex participants can have various kinds of sexual activities by just sitting safely behind their personal computers, and without talking to each other if they do not want to.
It can be a physically safe way for young people to experiment with sexual thoughts and emotions. In addition, people with long-term ailments including HIV can engage in cybersex as a way to safely achieve sexual gratification without putting their partners at risk. Anonymity can provide security and be a protector and a liberator. Participants regard the Internet as a safe technological medium to express or explore different aspects of their sexuality in almost complete anonymity. By taking advantage of the anonymity of cybersex, participants feel safe to share sexual intimacy online.
Participants can delete or create a new screen name, if any adventure becomes unpleasant or uncomfortable.
Therefore, cybersex becomes a safe outlet for interests and desires Sexual encounters are difficult to be expressed in real life. Anonymity can also help unsociable or stigmatized people because there are no social sanctions, embarrassment, or fear of negative reactions. In addition, the distance afforded by computer-mediated technology adds one more element of safety for the cybersex participants, because cybersex can always stop at the keyboard. Across cultures a recurring theme was expressed — that of the loss of physical sensation that ly accompanied sexual encounters.
However, in contrast, some of these men believed that the injury made them better lovers. Women with SCI reported disabling self-perspectives that originated from internal and external sources. Some differences between SCI of men and women are noted. However, White et al. Specifically, women who were around 21 years old when they were injured reported a greater frequency of sex postinjury White et al. On the other hand, women who were younger than 18 years old at the time of injury were less likely to be sexually active Ferreiro-Velasco et al. When combined, the studies provide a more robust understanding of sexual expression and sexual pleasure following SCI.
The important thing to remember is that people with SCI remain sexual beings and can lead sexually satisfying lives. However, the loss of genital sensation and the inability to experience orgasm will affect their sexual activity and experiences. No appropriate sexual rehabilitation interventions are yet available in terms of the timing and the topics included Ostrander, Lisa Regev, William O'donohue, in Encyclopedia of the Human Sexual encounters Negative feelings toward sex, oneself, or the sexual partner, fear of losing control, fear of pregnancy, performance anxiety, thoughts of a trauma such as a sexual traumaand discomfort with increased vulnerability may negatively impact sexual functioning, including orgasm problems.
It is important to assess the thoughts and feelings the client experiences during these encounters so as to determine what is interfering with the progression of the sexual experience. It is possible that the individual has unrealistic expectations or goals related to sex, such as the expectation that multiple orgasms occur in each sexual interaction. If this is found to be the case, it is important to educate the individual regarding reasonable expectations. If a trauma appears to be influencing the individual's sexual experiences, it is important to treat the person's trauma first, the success of which may indirectly influence the orgasm problem.
In addition, the individual's relationship with his or her partner may influence their sexual interactions. If this is found to be true, it is appropriate to address relationship problems prior to addressing the sexual relationship. If the person's expectations are reasonable, there is no trauma influencing the sexual experience, and the relationship is not problematic, directed masturbation has been demonstrated to be effective in treating women with orgasmic disorder. This treatment can be effective if the woman and her partner consider masturbation to be Sexual encounters acceptable form of treatment.
The book Becoming Orgasmic delineates a program for women to learn to masturbate and become orgasmic. For men with orgasmic disorder or premature ejaculation, performance anxiety may play a central role in problem maintenance.
If during the assessment phase he describes thoughts indicating anxiety related to reaching orgasm, it is important to attend to these thoughts in treatment. These thoughts may inhibit him from reaching orgasm or they may result in his reaching orgasm prematurely. Treatment may focus on educating him that orgasm is not the goal and endpoint of sex. Instead, the focus is shifted to sensual pleasure as related to arousing other parts of the body, which Masters and Johnson termed sensate focus. The squeeze technique involves Sexual encounters him to masturbate to a point that he feels would result in ejaculation if he continued and squeeze the head of his penis for approximately 10 sec.
This is continued a of times over several occasions until he gains control over his ejaculatory latency. The same is true of the pause technique, whereby he pauses prior to ejaculation and then s masturbation.
Owen R. Floody, in Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience Both Cherry and unpublished observations in my laboratory describe patterns of calling by male hamsters over the course of extended sexual encounters with estrous females. In each case, rates were determined for a variety of male behaviors including sniffing or otherwise contacting specific parts of the female's body and self-grooming, again sometimes broken down by body part.
At the same time, the two studies used quite different methods to distinguish phases of the interaction. Cherry's study contrasted the first 20 min with later periods within each encounter. However, male hamsters can complete many copulatory series all of the behaviors leading up to an ejaculation within 20 min and male behavior can change radically over these series Floody, For this reason, it is especially useful to have the complementary from my laboratory, which contrasted each male's first, middle, and last copulatory series, regardless of their times of occurrence.
On several points, the two studies and approaches converge. First, rates of ultrasound production by males progressively declined over extended periods of copulation. Second, rates tended to be highest when males were sniffing, licking, or otherwise contacting some part especially the hindquarters of the female. However, reliable differences of this sort were not apparent right away and only became so later in the encounter, after the first 20 min in the study by Cherry and during the middle copulatory series in our unpublished study.
Though both these studies surveyed a variety of male behaviors, each focused on instances of calling associated with mounts, intromissions, and, especially, ejaculations. Aside from its role in reproduction, ejaculation attracts special interest because males typically take longer breaks from copulation after these than the other copulatory acts. Thus, one might expect rates of calling to increase near ejaculation if male ultrasounds function partly to maintain lordosis during periods when the tactile stimulation provided by copulatory behavior is absent. Consistent with this expectation, Cherry found that males vocalized at higher rates during 30 s periods just after ejaculations than in the immediately preceding 30 s.
On the surface, our unpublished disagree. We compared the call rates just before and after mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and found equivalent rates at all these points except in the period immediately after an ejaculation, when rates were temporarily depressed.
However, the intervals we examined were just 5 s in length and Cherry's make it clear that any stimulation of calling after ejaculation is delayed and concentrated at 10—30 s after the Sexual encounters, when a lordosis-facilitating stimulus might be needed most.
Each of these studies made at least one other observation relevant to the possibility that male ultrasounds function partly to maintain lordosis during breaks in copulatory behavior. Because dismounts predict breaks in copulation, this is consistent with the use of ultrasounds to help bridge these gaps. Second, Cherry correlated lordosis durations with the rates of calling by males, distinguishing periods when the males were or were not in contact with their female partners. The higher correlation was that between lordosis and noncontact calling, consistent with the idea that ultrasounds have their greater impact on lordosis during breaks in copulation when other lordosis-facilitating stimuli are absent.
Partnered, non-coital sexual behaviors such as kissing, non-genital sexual touching, genital touching, and oral-genital intercourse may comprise the majority of a Sexual encounters sexual encounter or may form sets of behaviors that accompany coital sexual behaviors. Kissing is especially characteristic of the partnered sexual interactions of younger e. Kissing may also be important as part of the context of parent—adolescent communication about sex and sexuality Beckett et al. The prevalence of other partnered sexual Sexual encounters among American year-olds is depicted in Figure 7.
The prevalence of given and received oral-genital sex is of particular interest in adolescent sexuality development, as these distinct sexual behaviors may have markedly different patterns of organization and associations with gender, with sexual self-concept, and with sexual partnerships McKay, Oral-genital sexual behaviors may occur in isolation, or in combination with other sexual behaviors Hensel et al.
A similar pattern is reported for received oral-genital sex. Vaginal-penile sex is often viewed in both popular and professional dialogue as the sine qua non of sexual development. Many societies develop separate language and social status for adolescents before and after an initial vaginal sexual experience. However, the range and meanings of sexual behaviors available to adolescents suggest the need Sexual encounters a more nuanced perspective. Among 16—year-olds, vaginal sex occurred more frequently.
However, only approximately one-third of males and females in this age group reported ever having vaginal sex. Anal-penile sex, and especially receptive anal sex, was a low occurring Sexual encounters among most adolescents. Some are not disgusted by a person, but by sex itself. To illustrate, the sexual act could be associated for the person with dominating another person, or the expression of lust with accompanying uncomfortable feelings, loss of self-control, or loss of innocence.
One may also perceive oneself as remaining pure by avoiding sex. For example, one who idolizes his mother may consequently idolize all women and thus not want to contaminate them by sexual activity. Critical changes that occur once the relationship becomes sexual may also deter the person from becoming sexually involved with a partner. Schneider mentioned that such a change could replace respect with familiarity, create vulnerability as a result of removing boundaries, or could result in sexual behavior being viewed, especially in light of sociocultural influences, as immoral, distasteful, lacking in dignity, or potentially dangerous.
Zimmerman, in On the Psychobiology of Personality There is little doubt that the mesolimbic DA reward pathway has evolved in mammals as Sexual encounters critical neural substrate underlying the motivation to seek out and consume primary reinforcers, such as food, water and sexual encounters. In addition, the mesolimbic DA system seems to play a vital role in SS or novelty seeking behavior Bardo et al. To the extent that both novelty and drugs of abuse activate the same mesolimbic DA system, this would suggest that stimuli that are high in sensation value would be most effective in substituting for drug reward.
Moreover, since high SS have the greatest need for novelty and are willing to take the most risk to obtain novelty, perhaps the high sensation stimuli would be more effective in reducing drug use among high SS than low SS. This notion has led some investigators to develop more effective drug abuse prevention messages that specifically target high-risk SS Donohew et al. This latter work has shown that high SS can be discriminated from low SS on the basis of two factors, active-adventure and conflict-combat. This Sexual encounters may be especially useful for improving the effectiveness of drug abuse prevention interventions.
Pre-clinical evidence from laboratory animals has corroborated the basic idea that natural reinforcers and high sensation stimulus materials may be effective interventions for reducing drug self-administration, at least temporarily. For example, Nader and Woolverton demonstrated that when rhesus monkeys were given a choice between intravenous cocaine vs.
Other research has shown that the availability of a sweet drinking solution is effective in reducing drug intake in laboratory animals. This effect of sucrose was consistent across time. Rats given alternate weeks of exposure to sucrose consistently decreased consumption of the morphine solution when sucrose was available and increased consumption when the sucrose was removed.
Much like the effect of food or a sweet solution in laboratory animals, alternative non-drug reinforcers also can reduce drug self-administration in humans. For example, studies indicate that abstinent alcoholics Yamamoto et al.
In addition to non-drug reinforcers such as food, drug self-administration can also be reduced by money. Both heroin and cocaine self-administration have been altered as a function of the amount of money concurrently available Comer et al. To date, however, there has not been a systematic investigation into the possibility that these non-drug reinforcers would differ in their efficacy to decrease drug self-administration between high and low SS. Jeffrey D. Since many of the sex partners in the current epidemics of STDs and HIV in gay men and other men who have sex with men are unnamed because of distrust in local health departments or because the sexual encounters are anonymous where no name or contact information is exchanged, partner notification is limited as a disease control strategy Kent et al.
Unknown partners cannot be notified. Social network theory tells us, however, that people find sex partners in similar social-sexual networks, such that venues or places where people meet sexual partners may be reasonable surrogates for these networks. Similar people with similar risk tend to congregate and meet in similar places, so places like bath houses, chatrooms, or bars may identify specific sexual Sexual encounters. Knowing that similar people at risk may be identified by a meeting place suggests that while a unique partner cannot be notified, people who meet at a unique venue can be and those people might be at a similar level of risk as the actual partner.
To this end, health departments have increasingly asked new cases of STDs, including HIV, where they meet new sexual partners. The reported venue can be targeted for educational efforts, outreach, STD screening and, depending on the type of venue, can notify its patrons or members of the potential increased risk for STDs Michaud et al. This strategy has been effective at adult bookstores where syphilis cases have met anonymous partners, online chatrooms, sex clubs, bars, and private parties.
New cases have been identified and brought to treatment similar to successful outcomes with partner notification. Often it can be challenging to secure the cooperation of a private business to educate or inform patrons if that business believes that doing Sexual encounters somehow acknowledges responsibility for the transmission of disease.Sexual encounters
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