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Metrics details. Waste poses a threat to public health and the environment if it is not stored, collected, and disposed of properly. The perception of waste as an unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards disposal. This study investigates the domestic waste practices, waste disposal, and perceptions about waste and health in an urban community. The study utilised a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data.

A total of household he were interviewed in the survey and six key informants were interviewed with the in-depth interviews. The of the study revealed that The study also showed that The remaining Of those who paid for the services of private contractors, There was a general perception that children should be responsible for transporting waste from the households to dumping sites. Proper education of the public, the provision of more communal trash bins, and the collection of waste by private contractors could help prevent exposing the public in municipalities to diseases.

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Globally, millions of tons of municipal solid waste are generated every day. Urban waste management is drawing increasing attention, as it can easily be observed that too much garbage is lying uncollected in the streets, causing inconvenience, environmental pollution, and posing a public health risk [ 12 ]. The problem of solid, liquid, and toxic-waste management in Africa has come with urbanization in the developing world.

An important feature of the urbanization of the developing world is the rapid growth of cities and metropolitan areas. The high rate of urbanization in African countries implies a rapid accumulation of refuse. Social and economic changes that most African countries have witnessed since the s have also contributed to an increase in the waste generated per capita [ 34 ]. As a result, municipal waste management constitutes one of the most crucial health and environmental issues facing managers of African cities [ 56 ].

Proper waste management is a public benefit and obligation.

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Improper waste disposal by one individual affects the entire citizenry, so, as a policy, countries have tasked every individual, establishment or institution to contribute ificantly to the process of keeping their communities and environment clean [ 7 — 9 ].

In the colonial days, the population of the Ghana, then the Gold Coast, was below six million and waste was better managed. The waste Wm off today looking to satisfy in the s was less voluminous and less complex than today, consisting largely of leaves, paper and wood products, with little plastic or hazardous chemicals [ 9 ]. The poor waste management situation in recent years has led to a high incidence of sanitation related illness, such as cholera, intestinal worms and typhoid.

These are among the top ten diseases that have been recorded, which raises the alarm of a public health crisis [ 10 — 13 ]. In Ghana, problems are encountered at all levels of waste management, particularly, collection, transportation and disposal. While existing waste disposal facilities are inadequate to deal with the quality and quantity of waste generated, more sophisticated systems are expensive and their maintenance requirements are high [ 14 ].

In Ghana, a study conducted at Kodiabe, which involved direct observations at disposal sites from five divisions, focused on the way in which refuse materials were disposed [ 15 ]. Similarly, a study done in Khulna, Bangladesh found that city dwellers think because they pay taxes it is the sole responsibility of the city authority to provide them with a nuisance-free habitable city [ 17 ].

Typically, local governments are responsible for the collection and disposal of the wastes generated within their jurisdiction, as well as for the operation and maintenance of their equipment. However, local governments usually lack the authority and resources to provide a satisfactory and economically viable service.

Effective and efficient solid waste management depends upon an equitable distribution of responsibilities, authority, and revenue between the national government and all the local governments [ 18 ]. However, there is a growing perception that inadequate education about the importance of proper sanitation for poor waste management practices in Ghana. Other factors ing for this situation are poor attitudes and lack of concern about environmental issues, high levels of poverty and misguided waste disposal practices [ 1920 ].

As in many developing countries, waste management in Ghana is a complex issue that has been a major issue on the priority list of successive governments, local authorities, and international donors in recent years. Waste management is a growing problem in Ghana, and despite large investments that have been made to meet the challenges of effective waste management in urban Ghana, there is little evidence that such efforts are having their expected effect [ 21 ].

Although huge capital investment is required to improve waste management, social and behavioural factors are also important if waste management in urban areas is to be successful. It is in this light that the current study aims to investigate community practices and perceptions about solid waste management and it implications for health in urban Accra.

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The purpose of the study was explained to all participants, after which written and verbal consent was received from each participant. All participants were assured of anonymity and the confidentially of the information received from them. It lies in the North-eastern part of the Greater Accra region. The study was conducted in Madina, which is one of the sub-municipalities of the Ga East municipality. Madina is one of the four zonal councils of the Assembly, which is made up of three electoral areas Nkwantanaa, Tatanaa, and Taatso having a total population ofThis study concentrated on the Nkwantanaa community of Madina, which has an estimated population of 48, It is a mixed settlement comprised of high, medium and low-density residential areas.

A total of 39 health facilities are located in the district. Of these, only 6 are public facilities, 31 are private facilities, one is operated by the Christian Health Association of Ghana CHAG and one is a quasi-governmental health facility. Public services and trading are the dominant occupations in the municipality, followed by farming and crafts.

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The study was descriptive in nature and used mixed methods quantitative and qualitative for data collection. The quantitative part of the study consisted of a survey using a questionnaire and the qualitative part used in-depth interviews with key informants.

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The study used a cross-sectional de that combined systematic and purposive sampling techniques in selecting the study area and the respondents. The Madina sub-municipality was purposely selected because it the most urbanized part of the municipality. The Nkwantanaa electoral area was randomly selected as the study site from among three electoral areas in the sub-municipality. The first household to be surveyed was selected by spinning a bottle, and every fifth house after that was interviewed. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained field staff who administered the questionnaires.

The questionnaire had four main sections that collected information on: 1 household and demographic characteristics; 2 domestic waste disposal practices; 3 social and cultural perceptions associated with waste disposal; and 4 private sector involvement in waste management. Sections of the questionnaire, particularly the household and demographic characteristics were adopted from the standard DHS questionnaire whiles the others sections were developed by the authors based on the objectives of the study and review of available literature.

The questionnaire was pre-tested in the Ga South Municipality that shares similar characteristics with the study district to assessment the suitability of the questions. After the pre-test, some changes were made to the a few questions to make them clearer and more understable. As mentioned above, the estimated population of the Nkwantanaa electoral area is 48, The sample size was rounded to households to make room for the high non-response rate in urban communities.

A total of individuals responded to the survey questionnaire, for a non-response rate of 4. The in-depth interviews Wm off today looking to satisfy conducted with six key informants who were selected purposively based on their knowledge about the community as it relates to waste management. The people interviewed included four officers from the zonal council of the Madina municipality, one officer from the Department of Environmental Health and Sanitation unit, one Assembly Member, and one officer of a private refuse contractor.

The key issues that were discussed included domestic waste disposal practices, private sector involvement in waste management, social and economic factors affecting waste management, and the consequence of poor waste management. The data were processed using Epi info software, version 3. Descriptive statistics, such as means, medians, and minimum and maximum values were calculated for continuous variables and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. The in-depth interviews were audiotaped using a digital audio-recorder, which were complemented with written interview notes.

The interviews were subjected to thematic framework analysis, which allows researchers to identify similarities and differences in the qualitative data, before focusing on relationships between different parts of the data [ 22 ]. We developed a codebook to group information according to main themes and sub-themes. Qualitative trend analysis of the interviews for each topic was used to identify the major issues for each of the main themes and sub-themes.

Descriptive narratives supported by illustrative quotes are used to present the. A total of out of the sampled households responded to the survey questionnaire. The sex of the respondents was almost evenly divided, with The modal age of the respondents was years with Nearly half About three-quarters Table 2 shows the characteristics and possessions of the households surveyed in Madina.

Most of the respondents Wm off today looking to satisfy Roughly 4 out of 10 respondents The average household size was 7 people. Half The minimum household size was 3, while the maximum household size was Out of the respondents, Not only was the of respondents who cooked at home high, but the frequency of cooking at home was high.

Overall three-quarters Only Tables 3 and 4 show the types of solid waste generated and the disposal methods used by the households. Food debris was the major waste generated in the study area, with The remaining reported types of waste were: plastics Most households The two most common storage items for solid waste were plastic bins The remaining respondents reported making use of polythene bags Contracted agents mainly convey household solid waste to the community disposal centre, and Others transported the waste themselves Some of the key informants reported similar information:.

All the of the households who disposed of waste through private contractors indicated that they paid for collection and disposal.

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This was confirmed by some of the key informants.

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